中國出口日本瓷器

几个世纪以来,景德镇的窑口生产了大量供宫廷使用的瓷器,而到了明代晚期,1620年万历皇帝驾崩后,宫廷资助的匮乏令窑主们不得不探索新市场,开始为日本市场烧制瓷器。

“古”即古老,“染付”意为青花,生产于1620至1645年间烧制的中国出口日本瓷器被称为古染付,彼时茶道的时兴导致茶具的需求量增大。古染付即为迎合日式品味和美感而烧制的瓷器。

古染付因为烧制于1621-1528年的明代天启年间,也被日本人称为天启瓷,由于其在中国陶瓷史上的独特性,不仅受中国瓷器藏家的青睐,也令日式传统青花瓷茶具爱好者着迷。

古染付的烧制工艺和纹样与传统中式陶瓷不同。古染付瓷会刻意使用疏于淘洗的陶土,制坯粗糙且器型不完美,这些恰恰是吸引日本人的特点。容器边缘的釉面时常从胎体剥落,被称为mushikui(虫喰い),即“虫咬痕”,深受青睐。

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This somewhat unique Chinese porcelain for the Japanese market was delightfully eccentric and displayed a refreshingly spontaneous, almost nonchalant style in comparison with traditional Chinese porcelain. Designs included landscapes, birds, flowers, animal and human representations and the ko-sometsuke vessels ranged from the classic to the asymmetrical to the humorous and downright odd.

While the Jingdezhen potters were turning their collective hands to the production of ko-sometsuke, or old blue and white porcelain, the 45-year period of its manufacture was both representative of their ability to adapt but also a high point of the cultural interactions between Japan and China during that time.

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